James Grant – witty and insightful on Gold

“To me the gold price takes the form of a very uncomplicated formula, and all you have to do is divide one by ‘n.’ And ‘n’, I’m glad you ask, ‘n’ is the world’s trust in the institution of paper money and in the capacity of people like Ben Bernanke to manage it. So the smaller ‘n’, the bigger the price. One divided by a receding number is the definition of a bull market.

You’ll notice that this had nothing to do with security analysis. This is conceptualizing, brainstorming, nothing to do with price/earnings ratios, other valuation methods like cash flows. It is a proposition or a hypothesis on what is driving the gold market. So the gold market is necessarily a speculative piece of business. It’s not to be confused with the kind of investment that Ben Graham wrote about. Anyway, I happen to be bullish on it, but not for reasons that I can readily defend before a member of the fraternity of chartered financial analysts.”

Jim Grant – US Will Resolve Debt by Returning to Gold Standard

anti-oxidant levels may be more important than genes in developing cancer

Identifying gene mutations in cancer patients to predict clinical outcome has been the cornerstone of cancer research for nearly three decades, but now researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have invented a new approach that instead links cancer cell metabolism with poor clinical outcome. This approach can now be applied to virtually any type of human cancer cell.

The researchers demonstrate that recurrence, metastasis, and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients can be identified by simply gene profiling cancer cells that are using ketones and lactate as a food supply.

These findings are reported in the April 15th online issue of Cell Cycle. The investigators are calling this new approach to personalized cancer medicine “Metabolo-Genomics.”

High-energy metabolites have long been suspected to “fuel” aggressive tumor cell behavior. The researchers used this premise to generate a gene expression signature from genetically identical cancer cells, but one cell group was fed a diet of high-energy metabolites. These lactate- and ketone-induced “gene signatures” then predicted recurrence, metastasis, and poor survival.

So, it appears that what cancer cells are eating determines clinical outcome, not necessarily new gene mutations.

Genetic markers, like expression of the mutationally activated HER2 gene, provide biomarkers that can be used to identify breast cancer patients at high-risk for recurrence or metastasis, and to modify their subsequent treatment with targeted therapies (i.e., herceptin, a drug used in aggressive breast cancers). But with “Metabolo-Genomics,” it is now about using “global” cancer cell metabolism for these predictions.

“Just by feeding cancer cells a particular energy-rich diet, it changes their character, without introducing mutations or altering their genetic profile,” Dr. Lisanti said. “We’ve only fed them high energy nutrients that help them to use their mitochondria, and this changes their transcriptional profile. It’s a new biomarker for “lethal” cancers that we can now treat with the right drugs, such as the anti-oxidant metformin.”

Dr. Lisanti and his colleagues believe that tumor metabolism is the new big picture for understanding how cancers undergo recurrence and metastasis.

via Jefferson researchers unlock key to personalized cancer medicine using tumor metabolism | BreakThrough Digest Medical News.

You versus You – how to win an internal battle

Zelda Gamson tried for decades to stop smoking. But while one part of her wanted to quit, another part just didn’t want to let go. So, how do you win a tug-of-war with yourself? We decided to ask one of the greatest negotiators of our time for some advice. Adam Davidson from Planet Money introduces us to Nobel Prize-winning economist Thomas Schelling, whose tactical skills saw him through high-stakes conflicts during the Cold War. But while his strategies worked wonders during nuclear stand-offs, it turns out they fell apart when he tried them on himself…in his own battle to quit smoking. Then one day, he had an idea so diabolical we thought no one would try it. Until we met Zelda, and her friend Mary Belenky, who came up with a contract powerful enough to give Zelda a fighting chance. Neuroscientist David Eagleman helps us untangle the tricky business of cutting deals with oursleves. And producer Pat Walters complicates things–in a good way–with the story of two brothers, Dennis and Kai Woo, who forged a deal with each other that wound up determining both of their futures.

via You v. You – Radiolab.